What Issues Did The Sykes Picot Agreement Cause

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At the peace conference that officially opened on 18 January, the Big Four (first a “Council of Ten” made up of two delegates from the United Kingdom, France, the United States, Italy and Japan) agreed on 30 January on the outlines of a mandate system (including three mandate levels) to later become Article 22 of the League Alliance. The Big Four would later decide which municipalities, under what conditions and what are mandatory. The following eleven points included the formal agreements between Great Britain, France and Russia. Jerusalem rejected the plan, despite the risk of jeopardizing its relations with Washington, and instead proposed a partial agreement with Egypt, on the condition of Israel`s withdrawal from the Suez Canal, which opened it up to international traffic, especially Israeli shipping. This agreement was also rejected by The Egyptians who were not willing to make peace with the Jewish state. Between the meetings with Hussein, Sykes had informed London that “the sooner the French military mission is withdrawn from Hedjaz, the better,” and then Lord Bertie was ordered to ask the French for the same thing, because the mission is hostile to the Arab cause and that “the relations and policy of the Allies in the Hejaz can only harm and may even affect the whole future of French relations with the Arabs.” After the French response, William Ormsby-Gore wrote on May 31, 1917: in his doctoral thesis, Gibson talks about the role of oil in British strategic thinking at the time and mentions Vilayet Mosul as the largest potential oil field and France`s 1918 agreement to approve its accession to the mandate of Iraq (the Clemenceau Lloyd George Agreement) in exchange for “a share of oil and elsewhere support in the United Kingdom.” [53] The agreement gave a general understanding of the spheres of influence of the United Kingdom and France in the Middle East. The aim was to divide the Arab provinces of the Ottoman Empire (excluding the Arabian Peninsula). The French elected Picot as French High Commissioner for the soon-to-be-occupied territory of Syria and Palestine. The British appointed Sykes political chief of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force.

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