European Debt Agreement

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We use essential expenditure because it reports German data for the years 1948 and 1949 and because public expenditure (including the Länder and municipalities) was not available for all Länder. The main limitation of this analysis is that we are forced to rely on a transnational panel of data on social spending in European countries, which may not be fully consistent. For example, there may be significant difficulties in determining expenditure related to social security programs and social health insurance in different countries (e.g.B. “for some countries/periods, inclusion of social security has proved too difficult” Flora (1983, 345)). This is why we use data on economic development (economic services and spending on transport and communications) and we do not add other expenditures in social categories such as public health expenditures due to cross-cutting problems within the treatment group. Similarly, we avoid including social spending on education or housing in the control group. In this case, the expenditure category control group includes data relating to defence, police, security and debt. Despite significant data limitations, the results indicate that economic development spending in Germany grew much faster than spending on debt repayment, defense, and policing after 1953 compared to other categories of spending and compared to other European nations. . . .

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