This article cannot indicate what an ideal “cascade” would look like to adapt to the subtle differentiation of the Paris Agreement, not least because the Paris Agreement does not make it mandatory to transmit information on adaptation in the NDCs. In addition, detailed bases for countries` adaptation efforts and needs would be needed. Although emerging economies have the highest percentage (14%) including measures, plans or strategies for all five sectors (see Figure 2), LDCs and the most appropriate SIDSs. The validity of the results is underlined by similar cascades concerning the mention of vulnerable sectors and climate risks by the NDCs or the number of countries that incorporate adjustment cost data into their NCOs (see Pauw et al. 2016). The EU and its member states are among the nearly 190 parties to the Paris Agreement. The EU formally ratified the agreement on 5 October 2016, allowing it to enter into force on 4 November 2016. In order for the agreement to enter into force, at least 55 countries representing at least 55% of global emissions had to file their ratification instruments. Open Access This article is licensed Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which allows use, release, customization, distribution and reproduction in any format, provided you grant appropriate recognition to the original author and source, providing a link to the Creative Commons license and indicating whether changes have been made.
The images or other third-party material contained in this article are included in the article`s Creative Commons license, unless otherwise stated in a hardware credit. If the material is not included in the Creative Commons license of the article and your intention to use it is not authorized by law or if the authorized use exceeds, you must obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. A copy of this license is available in creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. This concerns the very part of the Framework Convention that recognizes “common but differentiated” responsibilities between rich and poor countries, as well as the need to promote sustainable management of natural carbon sinks, including biomass, forests and oceans and other terrestrial, coastal and marine ecosystems. It is reflected in the Paris Agreement, which recognizes “the importance of ensuring the integrity of all ecosystems, including the oceans, and the protection of biodiversity, which some cultures recognize as Mother Earth, and recognizes the importance for some of the concept of “climate justice” when taking action to combat climate change. Similarly, results in climate finance, technology transfer and capacity building appear to be cascading (see Figures 3-6). While the encoding of requests for support is clearly visible, no cascade of pledges of support can be observed. As in the case of adaptation, this article cannot dictate what an “ideal” cascade would look like in terms of consistency with the subtle differentiation of the Paris Agreement.