First, Locke argued that natural rights such as life, liberty and property existed in the state of nature and could never be taken away by individuals, or even voluntarily abandoned. These rights were “inalienable” (not surrendered). Locke also contradicted Hobbes with the social contract. For him, it was not only an agreement between the people, but between them and the sovereign (preferably a king). Nevertheless, some notable recent agreements indicate that further progress will be possible in the coming years: this diminishing governance capacity and the inability to develop constructive relations for both sides with society risk strengthening the global group of fragile states. In a 2013 report, the OECD points out that the effects of globalization not only facilitate legal business, but also allow the growth of illegal activities – such as transnational and organised crime – that could weaken the states least able to meet these challenges. In 2015, the OECD ranked 50 countries and territories – one-fifth of the world`s population – fragile or conflicting. The OECD stresses that fragility is not only present in states, but also within these regions, which increases the prospect of growth in “alternatively governed” areas and poses a serious challenge to the restoration of central authority in many of the weaker states. However, the lack of a general common strategic understanding continues, which has led to a dominant, problem-oriented, ad hoc and thematic type of international cooperation that is not proactive, interdisciplinary or universal. States, businesses and activists are at the root of their specific causes, and this long-term ad hoc approach can potentially lead to a loss of coherence and direction between the international bodies – the UN and others – that form the international system.
However, the advantage is that voluntary and informal approaches can help build trust, common language and common goals – benefits that can ultimately lead to support or reorientation in line with an international agreement.